Urban mobility options have substantially increased in recent years, enabled by the widespread availability of smart device software Apps, geo-positioning technology, and the ease of electronic financial transactions. These options are likely to be supplemented soon by the rapidly advancing development of autonomous vehicles. Commercial sharing services, such as share cars and share bicycles, are expecting to complement fixed route public transit systems to support the first/last mile challenge of public transit services [a part of Mobility as a Service (MaaS)], as well as stimulate additional demand for short distance mobility. This paper reviews the development of commercial bike and car sharing schemes, then examines the technologies and policies that support MaaS. This research draws upon the experiences learnt and indicates the potential difficulties encountered in the successful planning of shared mobility services. The results provide an in-depth discussion of the characteristics and needs of shared mobility services and investigates the barriers of applying the Internet of Things (IoT), cybersecurity and blockchain in first/last mile mobility challenge. The findings will assist the community, business providers and government policymakers who are keen to promote shared mobility as a pathway towards more efficient, environmentally sustainable and socially responsive mobility solutions.
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